The different types of blood glucose tests are:
► Fasting blood sugar (FBS)
measures blood glucose after you haven’t eaten for at least 8 hours (e.g., test first-thing). This self-test is often the first thing to gauge how well you did with eating right the previous day, and what your body should or shouldn’t have more of this day. Although it isn’t as accurate as some other tests, it’s sufficient for many.
► 2-hour postprandial blood sugar
measures blood glucose exactly 2 hours after you eat a meal.
► Random blood sugar (RBS)
measures blood glucose regardless of when you last ate, no fasting in advance required. Several random measurements may be taken throughout the day. Random testing is useful because glucose levels in healthy people do not vary widely throughout the day. Blood glucose levels that vary widely may indicate a problem. This test is also called a casual blood glucose test. Diabetes is diagnosed if the RPG, taken randomly, registers a glucose level of 200 or higher.
Additionally, the presence of other symptoms is confirmed, such as frequent urination, increased thirst or unexplained weight loss. Other diabetes symptoms may be present, such as fatigue and blurred vision.
► Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)
is used to diagnose pre-diabetes
and diabetes. An oral glucose tolerance test is a series of blood glucose measurements taken after you drink a sweet liquid that contains glucose. The OGTT also is among those used to diagnose gestational diabetes. A liquid containing 100 grams of sugar is taken before the test. If glucose levels register above normal in at least two of four tests then gestational diabetes is diagnosed.
► Urine tests are not a substitute for blood glucose tests. However, they can be used as a complement to blood testing or when it is difficult to obtain a drop of blood. More often, they are used when cost and availability of blood glucose tests are factors. These circumstances most often arise in economically disadvantaged regions in both developing and developed countries. Urine tests are the
most accurate when blood glucose levels are high and may not provide useful information in other circumstances. As with the blood test, a glucose level below 180 is desirable. Finally, if you are on medication, it could interfere with the results of a urine test.
► A1C test Endorsed by the American Diabetes Association, we have a new measure of our blood glucose level to help manage our diabetes prevention and reversal. The A1C test, taken several times a year, measures one’s average glucose levels over two to three months. Basically, the eAG reading converts your A1C reading into the same unit of measurement that appears on your home blood glucose meter. Importantly, if your eAG differs notably from your home meter reading, you may want to question the source of the discrepancy. For example, should you be testing at different times of the day?